Location   Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates:   4 00 N, 72 00 W
Area:   total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Area - comparative:   slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:   total: 6,004 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:   3,208 km ( Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims:   territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:   tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:   flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains , eastern lowland plains
Elevation extremes:   lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resources:   petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use:   arable land: 2.42%
permanent crops: 1.67%
other: 95.91% (2001)
Irrigated land:   8,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:   highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - international agreements:

  party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:   only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population: 42,310,775 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 31% (male 6,644,080; female 6,489,677)
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